Volume 4 Number 5 (Oct. 2013)
IJESD 2013 Vol.4(5): 538-544 ISSN: 2010-0264
DOI: 10.7763/IJESD.2013.V4.410

Cancer Risk Assessment from Trihalomethanes in Community Water Supply at Northeastern Thailand

Prapat Pentamwa, Benchamaporn Sukton, Tanisa Wongklom, and Sathaporn Pentamwa
Abstract—This study aims to investigate the concentration, lifetime cancer risk, and hazard index of trihalomethanes (THMs) through oral ingestion, dermal absorption and inhalation exposure from tap water of 17 community water treatment plants in northeastern Thailand. Chloroform (CHCl3) was found at highest level compared to dichlorobromomethane (CHCl2Br), chlorodibromomethane (CHClBr2) and bromoform (CHBr3) species. Results revealed that the Chongsammoe water treatment plant in Chaiyaphum province was found in the highest levels of 48.46 μg/L for total THMs whereas the levels were below the water quality guideline of WHO. Among the three pathways studies, the highest lifetime cancer risk comes from oral ingestion followed by dermal absorption and inhalation exposure route, mainly because of the exposure to CHCl3. Overall 6 of 17 plants, the lifetime cancer risk for CHCl2Br and CHCl3 through oral ingestion route were higher than risk level of 10-6 , the negligible defined by the USEPA. The average hazard index of total THMs in all muti-pathway exposure routes was lower than 1 indicating to acceptable non-carcinogenic risk level.

Index Terms—Cancer risk assessment, trihalomethanes, Thailand, water supply.

Prapat Pentamwa, Benchamaporn Sukton, and Tanisa Wongklom are with the School of Environmental Health, Institute of Medicine, Suranaree University of Technology, Nakorn Ratchasima, 30000 Thailand (e-mail: prapat@sut.ac.th, ben_sukton@hotmail.com, koryaa_0332@hotmail.com).
Sathaporn Pentamwa is with the Health Center 5, Department of Health, Ministry of Health, Nakorn Ratchasima, 30000 Thailand (e-mail: sathapornounchit@hotmail.com).


Cite:Prapat Pentamwa, Benchamaporn Sukton, Tanisa Wongklom, and Sathaporn Pentamwa, "Cancer Risk Assessment from Trihalomethanes in Community Water Supply at Northeastern Thailand," International Journal of Environmental Science and Development vol. 4, no. 5, pp. 538-544, 2013.

 General Information

  • ISSN: 2010-0264 (Print); 2972-3698 (Online)
  • Abbreviated Title: Int. J. Environ. Sci. Dev.
  • Frequency: Bimonthly
  • DOI: 10.18178/IJESD
  • Editor-in-Chief: Prof. Richard Haynes
  • Managing Editor: Ms. Cherry L. Chen
  • Indexing: Scopus (CiteScore 2022: 1.4), Google Scholar, CNKI, ProQuest, EBSCO, etc. 
  • E-mail: ijesd@ejournal.net

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