Abstract—Mass losses of Phoenix dactylifera date palm seeds
(DPSs) were measured using a thermo-gravimetric analyzer
(TGA). Six-milligram-sample of six varieties of DPSs were
pyrolyzed in an inert condition (argon atmosphere) with a
constant flow rate of 100 ml/min for the entire range of
experiments. The experiments were conducted under
non-isothermal conditions and at a heating rate of 20°C/min
until the furnace wall temperature reached 900°C. The
moisture (M), ash (ASH), volatile matter (VM) and fixed carbon
(FC) of the selected date seeds were determined by means of
proximate analysis. The weight percentages of carbon (C),
hydrogen (H), oxygen (O), nitrogen (N), sulfur (S) and atomic
ratios (H/C and O/C) were determined through the ultimate
analysis. The heating value, bulk and particle density of DPSs
were also measured using a bomb calorimeter and
ultra-pycnometer, respectively. The yield of the liquids was
obtained by subtracting the total gaseous mass from the DTG
data. The experiments demonstrated that there were significant
differences in physiochemical properties of selected DPSs. The
findings also revealed that DPSs contain much volatile
compounds. DPSs energy densities were found to be among the
high-quality biological feedstocks.
Index Terms—Date palm seeds, pyrolysis, TGA, thermal characteristic.
Mohammed Elamen Babiker, Rashid A. Aziz, and Morgan Heikal are with Automotive Research and Electric Mobility, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Bandar Seri Iskandar Tronoh – 31750, Perak, Malaysia (e-mail: email@example.com).
Suzana Yusup is with Green Technology MOR, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Bandar Seri Iskandar Tronoh – 31750, Perak, Malaysia.
Cite:Mohammed Elamen Babiker, A. Rashid A. Aziz, Morgan Heikal, and Suzana Yusup, "Pyrolysis Characteristics of Phoenix Dactylifera Date Palm Seeds Using Thermo-Gravimetric Analysis (TGA)," International Journal of Environmental Science and Development vol. 4, no. 5, pp. 521-524, 2013.