General Information
    • ISSN: 2010-0264
    • Frequency: Bimonthly (2010-2014); Monthly (Since 2015)
    • DOI: 10.18178/IJESD
    • Editor-in-Chief: Prof. Richard Haynes
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Editor-in-chief
The University of Queensland, Australia
It is my honor to be the editor-in-chief of IJESD. The journal publishes good papers in the field of environmental science and development.
IJESD 2013 Vol.4(5): 521-524 ISSN: 2010-0264
DOI: 10.7763/IJESD.2013.V4.406

Pyrolysis Characteristics of Phoenix Dactylifera Date Palm Seeds Using Thermo-Gravimetric Analysis (TGA)

Mohammed Elamen Babiker, A. Rashid A. Aziz, Morgan Heikal, and Suzana Yusup
Abstract—Mass losses of Phoenix dactylifera date palm seeds (DPSs) were measured using a thermo-gravimetric analyzer (TGA). Six-milligram-sample of six varieties of DPSs were pyrolyzed in an inert condition (argon atmosphere) with a constant flow rate of 100 ml/min for the entire range of experiments. The experiments were conducted under non-isothermal conditions and at a heating rate of 20°C/min until the furnace wall temperature reached 900°C. The moisture (M), ash (ASH), volatile matter (VM) and fixed carbon (FC) of the selected date seeds were determined by means of proximate analysis. The weight percentages of carbon (C), hydrogen (H), oxygen (O), nitrogen (N), sulfur (S) and atomic ratios (H/C and O/C) were determined through the ultimate analysis. The heating value, bulk and particle density of DPSs were also measured using a bomb calorimeter and ultra-pycnometer, respectively. The yield of the liquids was obtained by subtracting the total gaseous mass from the DTG data. The experiments demonstrated that there were significant differences in physiochemical properties of selected DPSs. The findings also revealed that DPSs contain much volatile compounds. DPSs energy densities were found to be among the high-quality biological feedstocks.

Index Terms—Date palm seeds, pyrolysis, TGA, thermal characteristic.

Mohammed Elamen Babiker, Rashid A. Aziz, and Morgan Heikal are with Automotive Research and Electric Mobility, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Bandar Seri Iskandar Tronoh – 31750, Perak, Malaysia (e-mail: mohammedelamen@gmail.com).
Suzana Yusup is with Green Technology MOR, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Bandar Seri Iskandar Tronoh – 31750, Perak, Malaysia.

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Cite:Mohammed Elamen Babiker, A. Rashid A. Aziz, Morgan Heikal, and Suzana Yusup, "Pyrolysis Characteristics of Phoenix Dactylifera Date Palm Seeds Using Thermo-Gravimetric Analysis (TGA)," International Journal of Environmental Science and Development vol. 4, no. 5, pp. 521-524, 2013.

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