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IJESD 2023 Vol.14(6): 388-398
doi: 10.18178/ijesd.2023.14.6.1459

Surface Water Quality in Urban Areas in Southern Most Province of Vietnam

Tran Thi Kim Hong, Le Thi Diem Mi, and Nguyen Thanh Giao*

Manuscript received November 26, 2022; revised January 6, 2023; accepted January 30, 2023.

Abstract—This study aims to assess the influence of socioeconomic activities on surface water quality in the Ca Mau province. Water quality data were collected at 14 locations in 2021. Water quality index (VN_WQI), hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA), Pearson correlation and principal component analysis (PCA) were applied in the study. The results showed that the surface water quality was contaminated organic matters (TSS, BOD, COD) and coliform. Water quality was assessed from poor to medium levels by VN_WQI and the water quality is unsuitable for direct irrigation purposes. The results also showed that water quality at Ganh Hao river fork (S2) was the most polluted. HCA classified water quality into three groups based on the similarity of water quality parameters. Pearson correlation results indicated organic pollution, nutrients and microorganisms were mutually related. PCA explained 83.60% of the total variance with three PCs. Ten parameters were identified as the key water parameters influencing surface water quality and these parameters should be continuously monitored. The water pollution sources were possibly urban and market activities, production facilities discharge and salinity intrusion.

Index Terms—Ca Mau province, hierarchical cluster analysis, surface water quality, nutrients, microorganisms

Tran Thi Kim Hong, Le Thi Diem Mi, and Nguyen Thanh Giao are with College of Environment and Natural Resources, Can Tho University, Vietnam.
*Correspondence: ntgiao@ctu.edu.vn (N.T.G.)

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Cite: Tran Thi Kim Hong, Le Thi Diem Mi, and Nguyen Thanh Giao*, "Surface Water Quality in Urban Areas in Southern Most Province of Vietnam," International Journal of Environmental Science and Development vol. 14, no. 6, pp. 388-398, 2023.

Copyright © 2023 by the authors. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

General Information

  • ISSN: 2010-0264 (Print); 2972-3698 (Online)
  • Abbreviated Title: Int. J. Environ. Sci. Dev.
  • Frequency: Bimonthly
  • DOI: 10.18178/IJESD
  • Editor-in-Chief: Prof. Richard Haynes
  • Managing Editor: Ms. Cherry L. Chen
  • Indexing: Scopus (CiteScore 2022: 1.4), Google Scholar, CNKI, ProQuest, EBSCO, etc. 
  • E-mail: ijesd@ejournal.net

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