Volume 12 Number 6 (Jun. 2021)
IJESD 2021 Vol.12(6): 169-174 ISSN: 2010-0264
doi: 10.18178/ijesd.2021.12.6.1336

Recycling of Non-metallic Residue from Waste Printed Circuit Boards to Produce Interlocking Concrete Blocks

Sawitri Pianchaiyaphum, Suphaphat Kwonpongsagoon, Premrudee Kanchanapiya, and Chakrapan Tuakta
Abstract—The process of copper recovery from waste printed circuit board has generated large amounts of non-metallic fraction (NMF) residue. In this research, the residue was recycled as a substitute for fine aggregates at 0%, 5%, 10%, 15%, and 20% to produce interlocking concrete blocks. Properties of the interlocking concrete blocks produced in this study, such as density, water absorption, compressive strength, were firstly examined and the selected mixes were further evaluated for the heavy metal leachability. The results indicated that the NMF residue affected physical, mechanical and chemical properties of NMF interlocking concrete block samples. When increasing NMF contents, the density and compressive strength decreased, while the water absorption increased. In the leachability results, the leaching of Cu decreased as cement content increased, and its concentration level was well below the Soluble Threshold Limit Concentration limit (STLC). Thus, the high content of Cu and all other metals embedded in the NMF material were immobilized in the interlocking concrete block specimens.

Index Terms—Interlocking concrete block, non-metallic fraction residue, recycling, waste printed circuit board.

Sawitri Pianchaiyaphum and Suphaphat Kwonpongsagoon are with the Department of Sanitary Engineering, Faculty of Public Health, Mahidol University, Bangkok, 10400, Thailand. They are also with Center of Excellence on Environmental Health and Toxicology (EHT), Bangkok, 10400,Thailand (e-mail:sawitri.ppia@gmail.com, suphaphat@hotmail.com).
Premrudee Kanchanapiya is with National Metal and Materials Technology Center, Pathum Thani, 12120, Thailand (e-mail: premrudk@mtec.or.th).
Chakrapan Tuakta is with the Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Kasetsart University, Bangkok, 10900, Thailand (e-mail: ctuakta@gmail.com).


Cite: Sawitri Pianchaiyaphum, Suphaphat Kwonpongsagoon, Premrudee Kanchanapiya, and Chakrapan Tuakta, "Recycling of Non-metallic Residue from Waste Printed Circuit Boards to Produce Interlocking Concrete Blocks," International Journal of Environmental Science and Development vol. 12, no. 6, pp. 169-174, 2021.

Copyright © 2021 by the authors. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

 General Information

  • ISSN: 2010-0264 (Print); 2972-3698 (Online)
  • Abbreviated Title: Int. J. Environ. Sci. Dev.
  • Frequency: Bimonthly
  • DOI: 10.18178/IJESD
  • Editor-in-Chief: Prof. Richard Haynes
  • Managing Editor: Ms. Cherry L. Chen
  • Indexing: Scopus (CiteScore 2022: 1.4), Google Scholar, CNKI, ProQuest, EBSCO, etc. 
  • E-mail: ijesd@ejournal.net

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