Abstract—Excessive toxic metals are commonly found in
polluted water bodies. This study aimed to synthesise
kenaf-based adsorbents for the adsorption of lead (II) ions. The
physical and chemical characteristics of the kenaf (KNF) core
and fibre were determined using field emission scanning
electron microscope (FESEM), thermogravimetric analysis
(TGA), and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR).
The further synthesised kenaf-chitosan-alginate
(KNF-CHT-ALG) beads were characterised through FESEM
and FTIR, while inductively coupled plasma (ICP) was
employed to determine the percentage of adsorption. The
FESEM analysis demonstrated that the KNF core had a
rougher surface morphology than the KNF fibre. The TGA
analysis confirmed that the KNF core was coarser and
contained a higher residue of approximately 75.91%. The FTIR
spectra established intense functional groups in the KNF core,
such as hydroxyl and carboxyl, attracting more Pb (II) ions.
The KNF core was then used to synthesise KNF-CHT-ALG
beads. The beads confirmed the enhancement in surface
morphology and the existence of numerous functional groups
for Pb (II) ions to bind. The ICP analysis demonstrated 95% of
Pb (II) ion adsorption. Additionally, batch adsorption
experiments were conducted at pH 2–7 and the contact time was
within 5–60 minutes. The kinetic study of the adsorption
followed the pseudo-second order model with an R2 value of
0.9999. The KNF is a crop found in abundance in Malaysia,
which could reduce the production cost of adsorbents. The
significant outcomes would minimise the dependency on
chemical adsorbents and accelerate the removal process of
heavy metals in natural bodies of water.
Index Terms—Toxic metals, kenaf, polluted, adsorbent, adsorption.
N. A. S. Anuar, S. Abdul-Talib, S. Abdullah, J. Jaafar, and N. F. Lokman are with the School of Civil Engineering, College of Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM), 40450 Shah Alam, Malaysia (e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com, firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com, firstname.lastname@example.org).
T. Chia-Chay is with the Environmental Technology Program, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM), 40450 Shah Alam, Malaysia (e-mail: email@example.com).
S. Abdul-Talib, T. Chia-Chay, and N. F. Lokman are also with the MyBioREC, School of Civil Engineering, College of Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM), 40450 Shah Alam, Malaysia.
Cite: N. A. S. Anuar, S. Abdul-Talib, T. Chia-Chay, S. Abdullah, J. Jaafar, and N. F. Lokman, "Green Kenaf-Based Adsorbent for Adsorption of Pb (II) Ions in Water," International Journal of Environmental Science and Development vol. 13, no. 3, pp. 77-84, 2022.Copyright © 2022 by the authors. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).