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IJESD 2024 Vol.15(1): 1-10
doi: 10.18178/ijesd.2024.15.1.1460

Seasonal Variation and Key Variables Affecting Surface Water Quality in North Vam Nao Area, Vietnam

Nguyen Xuan Lan, Huynh Vuong Thu Minh, and Nguyen Thanh Giao*
College of Environment and Natural Resources, Can Tho University, Can Tho city, Vietnam
Email: xuan.lan82@gmail.com (N.X.L.); hvtminh@ctu.edu.vn (H.V.T.M.); ntgiao@ctu.edu.vn (N.T.G.)
*Corresponding author

Manuscript received June 6, 2023; revised July 14, 2023; accepted September 6, 2023; published January 5, 2024

Abstract—Surface water is essential to life, but it is seriously influenced by anthropogenic and natural impacts. Extraction of inside information (for examples sources and key variables influencing water quality) from monitoring data of surface water quality is a crucial task. This study was to intensively evaluate surface water quality in North Vam Nao using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Cluster Analysis (CA). The water quality parameters from seven locations during the period 2010–2022 including temperature, pH, total suspended solids (TSS), dissolved oxygen (DO), biological oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), nitrate (NO3-N), ammonium (NH4+-N), orthophosphate (PO43−-P) and coliforms were collected. The results show that surface water quality is seasonally varied, except for pH. The PCA results predicted the main sources of water pollution were possibly hydrological conditions (rainfall, erosion) and human activities (domestic, agricultural and industrial activities). CA classified the water quality into three clusters for both dry and wet seasons. The common pollutants in both seasons were total suspended solids, organic matters, nutrients, and coliform. All the parameters temperature, pH, TSS, DO, BOD, COD, NH4+-N, NO3-N, PO43−-P and coliform are key surface water parameters needed to be monitored. The results of the current study could be used for designing surface water monitoring at the study area.

Keywords—cluster analysis, microorganism, North Vam Nao River, principal component analysis, surface water quality


Cite: Nguyen Xuan Lan, Huynh Vuong Thu Minh, and Nguyen Thanh Giao, "Seasonal Variation and Key Variables Affecting Surface Water Quality in North Vam Nao Area, Vietnam," International Journal of Environmental Science and Development vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 1-10, 2024.

Copyright © 2024 by the authors. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

General Information

  • ISSN: 2010-0264 (Print); 2972-3698 (Online)
  • Abbreviated Title: Int. J. Environ. Sci. Dev.
  • Frequency: Bimonthly
  • DOI: 10.18178/IJESD
  • Editor-in-Chief: Prof. Richard Haynes
  • Managing Editor: Ms. Cherry L. Chen
  • Indexing: Scopus (CiteScore 2022: 1.4), Google Scholar, CNKI, ProQuest, EBSCO, etc. 
  • E-mail: ijesd@ejournal.net

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