Abstract—Transparency is crucial for the effective implementation of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer. This paper examines the status of reporting for transparency by developing countries under these international regimes. In doing so, it selects the Philippines as a case, since the country is apparently late in the submissions of national reports under the UNFCCC. This study aims to identify possible factors hindering the Philippines from reporting as required under the Convention. To this end, it presents the results of a comparative study with the reporting by the Philippines under the Montreal Protocol by utilizing the framework of “enforceability analysis” as well as the concepts of “scale” and “scaling”. The comparison in terms of five factors for enforceability finds that the data collection for reporting under the Montreal Protocol is relatively easier to implement in the Philippines. Furthermore, upscaling of the issue of climate change on the administrative scale is found to impose additional burden on capacity development in the country. The findings suggest an increasing need for donors to find a good balance between assisting developing countries deliver reports for transparency and facilitating their longer-term capacity development.
Index Terms—Climate change, ozone protection, reporting, transparency.
M. Kawanishi is with Japan International Cooperation Agency, Tokyo, Japan (e-mail: Kawanishi.Masato@jica.go.jp).
M. Kato and E. Matsuda are with the Overseas Environmental Cooperation Center, Tokyo, Japan (e-mail: email@example.com; firstname.lastname@example.org).
R. Fujikura is with the Faculty of Sustainability Studies, Hosei University, Tokyo, Japan (e-mail: email@example.com).
Cite: Masato Kawanishi, Makoto Kato, Emiko Matsuda, and Ryo Fujikura, "Comparative Study of Reporting for Transparency under International Agreements on Climate Change and Ozone Protection: The Case of the Philippines," International Journal of Environmental Science and Development vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 1-8, 2019.