General Information
    • ISSN: 2010-0264 (Print)
    • Abbreviated Title: Int. J. Environ. Sci. Dev.
    • Frequency: Monthly
    • DOI: 10.18178/IJESD
    • Editor-in-Chief: Prof. Richard Haynes
    • Executive Editor: Ms. Nancy Y. Liu
    • Abstracting/ Indexing: Scopus (Since 2019), Chemical Abstracts Services (CAS), EBSCO, CABI, Ulrich Periodicals Directory, Electronic Journals Library, Crossref, ProQuest.
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The University of Queensland, Australia
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IJESD 2011 Vol.2(4): 259-263 ISSN: 2010-0264
DOI: 10.7763/IJESD.2011.V2.134

The Effect of Ammonia Loading on the Nitrification Kinetic of Aerobic Baffled Continuous Biological Reactor

S. R. M. Kutty, M. H. Isa and L. C. Leong

Abstract—The purpose of this study is to determine the degradation rate of ammonia in the modified activated-sludge system through a modified, laboratory scale biological reactor. To achieve this, a modified biological reactor with pre-installed continuous narrow baffle walls operating at extended aeration (SRT = 40 days) was designed to intentionally create a number of complete-mix activated-sludge zones. In order to compare the performance, a control reactor (SRT = 2 days) operating at conventional aeration was created to simulate the conventional activated-sludge process in the domestic STP. After the acclimatization period, the influent ammonia was increased gradually by approximately 15 mg/L and the corresponding effluent ammonia level was monitored. Based on the analysis, the nitrification kinetic of the control and modified reactor was observed to be 0.0823 and 10.321, respectively. The nitrification kinetic of the control reactor was considered as negligible due to the conventional activated-sludge process, which inhibits the growth of nitrifiers. In contrast, the modified reactor has achieved nitrification kinetic of 10.32, due to the narrow baffle walls that increased the overall retention time.

Index Terms—ammonia-nitrogen, solid retention time, modified conventional activated-sludge, baffled reactor.

Dr. Shamsul Rahman B M Kutty and Dr. Mohamed Hasnain Isa, Associate Professor of Civil Engineering Department, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Malaysia.(e-mail:
Lai Chin Leong is with the Civil Engineering Department of Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Bandar Seri Iskandar, 31750, Tronoh, Perak, Malaysia (e-mail:


Cite: S. R. M. Kutty, M. H. Isa and L. C. Leong, "The Effect of Ammonia Loading on the Nitrification Kinetic of Aerobic Baffled Continuous Biological Reactor," International Journal of Environmental Science and Development vol. 2, no. 4, pp. 259-263, 2011.

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