Abstract—Every river gets polluted as it moves from its
source to the end. Hence, the quality of the water requires
investigation for the usability. In the present work 40.69 km
stretch of the river Tungabhadra in the Davangere district of
the Karnataka, India was chosen for testing the water quality.
The samples’ physical, chemical and biological characteristics
were tested from eight sites for each month during pre-monsoon,
monsoon and post-monsoon seasons from 2017 to 2019. A
biochemical oxygen demand-dissolved oxygen (BOD-DO)
equation was estimated using the de-oxygenation and
reaeration constants. The results showed that the physical and
chemical parameters were within the limits of the usability
standards for all the sampling stations during all seasons. For
the first 2.54 km of the River Tungabhadra, the biochemical
oxygen demand (BOD) levels were categorized as class “C”,
implying the river water to be within drinking water standards.
However, from 2.54 to 40.69 km stretch, the river was classified
as class “D”, making it unsuitable for drinking water. It was
also shown that the river could be maintained class “C” if it
flowed at 6m3/s which can be achieved by releasing water from
the Tunga and Bhadra reservoirs. Moreover, treatment of the
municipal waste before spilling to the river would further
reduce the BOD levels.
Index Terms—Dissolved oxygen control, QUAL2KW, Tungabhadra River, water quality
M. M. Babu, B. D. Reddy, S. Ranjith, and P. N. Reddy are with the Department of Civil engineering, Sri Venkateswara College of Engineering & Technology (Autonomous), Chittoor, Andhra Pradesh, India.
A. V. Shivapur is with the Department of Civil engineering, VTU-PG studies, Belagavi-590018, India.
B. V. Kavyateja is with the Department of Civil engineering, Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University, Anantapur, Andhra Pradesh, India.
K. Kumar is with the Department of Mechanical Engineering, Birla Institute of Technology, Mesra, Ranchi, Jharkhand, India.
*Correspondence: firstname.lastname@example.org (K.K.)
Cite: M. M. Babu, B. D. Reddy, A. V. Shivapur, S. Ranjith, P. N. Reddy, B. V. Kavyateja, and K. Kumar*, "A Water Quality Assessment and Modelling of the Indian River Tungabhadra," International Journal of Environmental Science and Development vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 160-169, 2023.Copyright © 2023 by the authors. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).