General Information
    • ISSN: 2010-0264
    • Frequency: Bimonthly (2010-2014); Monthly (Since 2015)
    • DOI: 10.18178/IJESD
    • Editor-in-Chief: Prof. Richard Haynes
    • Executive Editor: Ms. Nancy Y. Liu
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The University of Queensland, Australia
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IJESD 2014 Vol.5(1): 45-51 ISSN: 2010-0264
DOI: 10.7763/IJESD.2014.V5.448

Concentration of Lead in Saliva of Affected Primary School Children

Arweena Iskandar, Siti Nor Ain Seri Masran, and Ahmad Razali Ishak
Abstract—The use of a noninvasive (i.e. saliva) approach to measure heavy metals are seen as a reliable method of investigating heavy elements profile in humans. The main objective of this study is to study the concentration of lead in saliva of affected primary school children. This cross-sectional study was carried out at two different primary schools in Sarawak and specimens were taken from children aged between 7 - 12 years old (n=50). A survey form consisting demographic questions adapted from previous journals was also used to obtain other information. All null hypotheses of this study were rejected since the p-values showed there have a significant association (p<0.05) for lead concentration between exposed and non-exposed school children while except that for the health risk assessment, where the hazard index (HI) of less than 1 (indicating low risk). There was a mean difference of lead concentration in exposed and non-exposed primary school children. There was an also significant difference for Primary 1, Primary 2 and Primary 5 standard children.

Index Terms—Lead (Pb), lead concentration, saliva, hazard index (HI).

The authors are with the Faculty of Health Sciences, Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM), Malaysia (e-mail:,,


Cite:Arweena Iskandar, Siti Nor Ain Seri Masran, and Ahmad Razali Ishak, "Concentration of Lead in Saliva of Affected Primary School Children," International Journal of Environmental Science and Development vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 45-51, 2014.

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