Abstract—With the increase in human population in
developing countries including Pakistan and shortage of canal
irrigation water, people used to think about other alternate
irrigation sources particularly in peri-urban areas, where most
of the farming activities are depend upon waste water. Pakistan
is also included in the list of those where untreated waste water
application on vegetables is very common. Based on the
theoretical debate on its advantages and disadvantages, the
present study was designed to know about the incentives and
disincentives of untreated wastewater application in vegetables.
The study was conducted in the Punjab province. Quantitative
data were collected through reliable and validated research
instrument (interview schedule) and analyzed through SPSS. It
was concluded from the results that majority of the respondents
(55.8%) had education only upto eight (08) years of schooling.
About 69.2% of the respondents were small land holders and
considered as tenant. Majority of the majority of the vegetable
growers in the research area used to grow vegetables from more
than 10 years. Shortage of can irrigation water, power/energy
crises in Pakistan, and high cost of fresh water through tube well
were the main reasons behind application of untreated waste
water for vegetable farming. Out of different incentives of waste
water application in vegetables, high yield was on the top with
maximum mean (x̄=4.13). Health problems were the main
disincentives of wastewater application in vegetable due to its
high mean (x̄=4.42) out of others. Overall mean of all the
disincentives (x̄=4.61) is high compared to overall mean of all the
incentives (x̄=4.13). It was recommended that water treatment
facilities should be provided by the government on subsidized
rates as small scale vegetable growers didn’t have enough
financial and physical capitals.
Index Terms—Disincentives, incentives, Pakistan, vegetable farming, wastewater.
The authors are with the Department of Agri. Extension & Rural Development, University College of Agriculture, University of Sargodha, Pakistan and Agricultural Information Institute (AII) of CCAS, Beijing, China (e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org).
Cite: Muhammad Luqman, Rahman Shoukat, Xu Shiwei, Yu Wen, and Muhammad Yaseen, "Self-perceived Incentives and Disincentives of Untreated Waste Water Irrigation in Vegetables in Peri-Urban Areas of Pakistan," International Journal of Environmental Science and Development vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 231-235, 2017.