General Information
    • ISSN: 2010-0264
    • Frequency: Bimonthly (2010-2014); Monthly (Since 2015)
    • DOI: 10.18178/IJESD
    • Editor-in-Chief: Prof. Richard Haynes
    • Executive Editor: Ms. Nancy Y. Liu
    • Abstracting/ Indexing: Chemical Abstracts Services (CAS), CABI, Ulrich Periodicals Directory, Electronic Journals Library, Crossref, ProQuest.
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The University of Queensland, Australia
It is my honor to be the editor-in-chief of IJESD. The journal publishes good papers in the field of environmental science and development.
IJESD 2015 Vol.6(9): 693-701 ISSN: 2010-0264
DOI: 10.7763/IJESD.2015.V6.682

An Overview of Oil Production Stages: Enhanced Oil Recovery Techniques and Nitrogen Injection

Abubaker H. Alagorni, Zulkefli Bin Yaacob, and Abdurahman H. Nour
Abstract—During the life oil wells, production process usually passes three stages. Primary recovery uses the natural source of energy. Pumps and gas lifting are involved in the primary recovery. The main purpose of secondary recovery process is to maintain the reservoir pressure by either a natural gas flooding or water flooding.
    The rise in world oil prices has encouraged the producers to use the new technical developments. Enhanced oil recovery (EOR) is a collection of sophisticated methods, to extract the most oil from a reservoir. EOR can be divided into two major types of techniques: thermal and non-thermal recovery. Each technique has a specific use in a certain type of reservoirs.
    Among non-thermal techniques is the gas flooding, where gas is generally injected single or intermittently with water. Flue gas and nitrogen have only limited application as agents of a miscible displacement in deep and high pressure reservoirs.
    Although new development processes such as water alternating gas (WAG) or Simultaneous water alternating gas (SWAG), are implemented, there are still some problems encountered by EOR engineers. This paper is discussing the last updating in this field.

Index Terms—Enhanced oil recovery (EOR), miscible flooding, nitrogen injection, water alternating gas (WAG).

Abubaker H. Alagorni is with Universiti Malaysia Pahang, Malaysia (email:
Z. Bin Yaacob and A. H. Nour Yaacob are with the Faculty of Chemical and Natural Resources Engineering, University of Malaysia Pahang, Malaysia (e-mail:,


Cite:Abubaker H. Alagorni, Zulkefli Bin Yaacob, and Abdurahman H. Nour, "An Overview of Oil Production Stages: Enhanced Oil Recovery Techniques and Nitrogen Injection," International Journal of Environmental Science and Development vol. 6, no. 9, pp. 693-701, 2015.

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