General Information
    • ISSN: 2010-0264 (Print)
    • Abbreviated Title: Int. J. Environ. Sci. Dev.
    • Frequency: Monthly
    • DOI: 10.18178/IJESD
    • Editor-in-Chief: Prof. Richard Haynes
    • Executive Editor: Ms. Nancy Y. Liu
    • Abstracting/ Indexing: Scopus (Since 2019), Chemical Abstracts Services (CAS), EBSCO, CABI, Ulrich Periodicals Directory, Electronic Journals Library, Crossref, ProQuest.
    • E-mail:
    • Twitter: @IJESD1
The University of Queensland, Australia
It is my honor to be the editor-in-chief of IJESD. The journal publishes good papers in the field of environmental science and development.
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IJESD 2013 Vol.4(1): 20-24 ISSN: 2010-0264
DOI: 10.7763/IJESD.2013.V4.296

Constructed Wetland for Wastewater Treatment and Reuse: A Case Study of Developing Country

Atif Mustafa
Abstract—Treatment performance of a pilot-scale constructed wetland (CW) commissioned in a developing country was evaluated for removal efficiency of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), total suspended solids (TSS), ammonia-nitrogen (NH4-N), ortho-phosphate (PO4-P), total coliforms (TC) and faecal coliforms (FC) from pretreated domestic wastewater. Monitoring of wetland influent and effluent was carried out for a period of 8 months. Treatment effectiveness was evaluated which indicated good mean removal efficiencies; BOD (50%), COD (44%), TSS (78%), NH4-N (49%), PO4-P (52%), TC (93%) and FC (98%). The studied constructed wetland reduced concentrations of all contaminants present in the pretreated wastewater. The performance of contaminant removal varied throughout the monitoring period. The treated effluent from the constructed wetland can be reused for landscape irrigation. Few samples of BOD and TSS were within the US EPA reuse limits which shows that the constructed wetland can effectively treat the wastewater and fulfill the reuse limits occasionally. Faecal coliforms were not fully removed but the limits for reuse were achieved occasionally. For developing countries like Pakistan with limited technological advancement and energy problems, constructed wetlands which have a zero or very low energy requirement can be used in the treatment trains.

Index Terms—Constructed wetland, developing countries, reuse, treatment.

A. Mustafa is with the Environmental Engineering Department, NED University of Engineering and Technology, Karachi-75270, Pakistan (e-mail:,


Cite:Atif Mustafa, "Constructed Wetland for Wastewater Treatment and Reuse: A Case Study of Developing Country," International Journal of Environmental Science and Development vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 20-24, 2013.

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