General Information
    • ISSN: 2010-0264 (Print)
    • Abbreviated Title: Int. J. Environ. Sci. Dev.
    • Frequency: Monthly
    • DOI: 10.18178/IJESD
    • Editor-in-Chief: Prof. Richard Haynes
    • Executive Editor: Ms. Nancy Y. Liu
    • Abstracting/ Indexing: Scopus (Since 2019), Chemical Abstracts Services (CAS), EBSCO, CABI, Ulrich Periodicals Directory, Electronic Journals Library, Crossref, ProQuest.
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The University of Queensland, Australia
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IJESD 2013 Vol.4(1): 7-10 ISSN: 2010-0264
DOI: 10.7763/IJESD.2013.V4.293

Trinitrotoluene and Its Metabolites in Shoots and Roots of Panicum maximum in Nano-Phytoremediation

Waraporn Jiamjitrpanich, Preeda Parkpian, Chongrak Polprasert, and Rachain Kosanlavit
Abstract—Phytoremediation is one of chemical removal methods but this is a long term process. Nanotechnology is a novelty method that can be used for toxic remediation. The objective of this study aimed to determine Trinitrotoluene (TNT), 2-amino-4,6-dinitrotoluene (2-ADNT) and 4-amino-2,6-dinitrotoluene (4-ADNT) translocation in shoots and roots based on the nano-phytoremediation experiments. For methodology, the transplantation method of Panicum maximum (Purple guinea grass) were selected for this study. The plants were transferred and grown in the soil that was spiked with TNT with concentrations of 100 and 500 mg/kg and also added with nanoscale zero valent iron (nZVI) with concentrations of 100, 500, and 1000 mg/kg. The determination of TNT accumulation in Panicum maximum was carried out after harvesting at the end of 1st, 2nd, 3rd, and 4th months. The plants were divided into shoots and roots for the measurements of TNT and its metabolite residue concentrations. The present study can be concluded that the TNT uptake by roots in nZVI added soil was more effective than that without nZVI, particularly, the experiments with TNT concentration of 500 mg/kg. The results also showed that TNT was found in roots higher than that in shoots in all experimental groups. The 2-ADNT and 4-ADNT were only found in roots in all sets of the experiments. Both metabolites were undetectable in shoots.

Index Terms—Translocation, Panicum maximum, Trinitrotoluene (TNT), 2-amino-4,6-dinitrotoluene (2-ADNT), 4-amino-2,6-dinitrotoluene (4-ADNT), Nanoscale zero valent iron particles (nZVI), phytoremediation.

W. Jiamjitrpanich is with Nakhon Ratchasima Rajabhat University, Nakhon Ratchasima, Thailand.
P. Parkpian is with Asian Institute of Technology, Pathumthani, Thailand.
C. Polprasert is with Sirindhorn International Institute of Technology, Thammasat University, Pathumthani, Thailand.
R. Kosanlavit is with Institute of Science, Suranaree University of Technology. Nakhon Ratchasima, Thailand. (e-mail:


Cite:Waraporn Jiamjitrpanich, Preeda Parkpian, Chongrak Polprasert, and Rachain Kosanlavit, "Trinitrotoluene and Its Metabolites in Shoots and Roots of Panicum maximum in Nano-Phytoremediation," International Journal of Environmental Science and Development vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 7-10, 2013.

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