General Information
    • ISSN: 2010-0264
    • Frequency: Bimonthly (2010-2014); Monthly (Since 2015)
    • DOI: 10.18178/IJESD
    • Editor-in-Chief: Prof. Richard Haynes
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The University of Queensland, Australia
It is my honor to be the editor-in-chief of IJESD. The journal publishes good papers in the field of environmental science and development.
IJESD 2017 Vol.8(7): 521-525 ISSN: 2010-0264
doi: 10.18178/ijesd.2017.8.7.1008

Environmental Impact of Coal Clay Brick Kiln Emission on the Reproductive Health of Children and Adult Male Workers

Saadia Shahid, Adila Zafar, and Sarwat Jahan
Abstract—The emission from the brick kilns is a major cause of air pollution worldwide, specifically in developing countries. These pollutants can have a direct impact on reproductive health of adult males and children working in brick kilns, and can eventually lead to male infertility. The aim of this research was to check the effect of brick kiln exposure on the serum testosterone, luteinizing hormone (LH), and body mass index (BMI) of male children and adults working in kilns. Total 205 subjects, constituting, 54 exposed children (n=54) and exposed male adults (n=58) working in brick kilns were analyzed against healthy children (n=48) and healthy males (n=45) from Rawalpindi, Pakistan. The age range of children under study was 4-17 years and of adults was 18-48 years, further subdivided into sub groups. In case of children (n=54) our findings indicated that the brick kiln exposure significantly reduces the level of LH (P<0.01), testosterone (P<0.5) and BMI (P=0.01). Similarly, adult brick kilns workers (n=58) when analyzed and compared with control (n=45) indicated significantly lower BMI values (P<0.01) and reduced levels of serum testosterone and LH levels (P<0.05). Our results are in accordance with our hypothesis that coal clay brick kiln exposure can directly affect the fertility of children and adult males.

Index Terms—Brick kilns, body mass index, children, coal clay, exposure, luteinizing hormone, males, reproductive health, testosterone.

The authors are with the Animal Sciences, Quaid-i-Azam University Islamabad, Pakistan (e-mail:,,


Cite: Saadia Shahid, Adila Zafar, and Sarwat Jahan, "Environmental Impact of Coal Clay Brick Kiln Emission on the Reproductive Health of Children and Adult Male Workers," International Journal of Environmental Science and Development vol. 8, no. 7, pp. 521-525, 2017.

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