—In the last decade, available research studies on
industrial and biomedical applications have documented the
potential for significant health effects from exposure to carbon
nanotubes (CNTs) and carbon nanofibers (CNFs). This paper
reviews existing information on toxicity and potential health
risks from occupational exposures to CNTs and CNFs.
Additionally, the paper discusses the need to consider the
Precautionary Principle as a basis for risk management
practices for effectively controlling exposures to CNTs and
CNFs. It must be noted that in order to effectively evaluate
workers’ exposures and minimize risks for respiratory hazards,
a multi-tiered measurement strategy and feasible interventions
or controls must be developed with a view to controlling
exposures below NIOSH’s recommended exposure limit of 1.0
μg/m3over a working lifetime of 45 years. The application of
classical industrial hygiene exposure controls (engineering,
administrative control/work practices, and personal protective
equipment) are recommended.
—Carbon nanotubes, carbon nanofibers, toxicity,
occupational exposure limits, engineering control,
work-practice control, personal protective equipment.
The authors are with the Department of Public Health, Western Kentucky
University, Bowling Green, KY 42101, USA (e-mail:
Cite: Emmanuel A. Iyiegbuniwe, Usonwanne U. Nwosu, and Sireesha Kodali, "A Review of Occupational Health Implications of Exposure and Risk Management of Carbon Nanotubes and Carbon Nanofibers," International Journal of Environmental Science and Development vol. 7, no. 11, pp. 849-855, 2016.