General Information
    • ISSN: 2010-0264 (Print)
    • Abbreviated Title: Int. J. Environ. Sci. Dev.
    • Frequency: Monthly
    • DOI: 10.18178/IJESD
    • Editor-in-Chief: Prof. Richard Haynes
    • Executive Editor: Ms. Nancy Y. Liu
    • Abstracting/ Indexing: Scopus (Since 2019), Chemical Abstracts Services (CAS), EBSCO, CABI, Ulrich Periodicals Directory, Electronic Journals Library, Crossref, ProQuest.
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The University of Queensland, Australia
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IJESD 2016 Vol.7(11): 835-842 ISSN: 2010-0264
doi: 10.18178/ijesd.2016.7.11.891

Study of Energy Regulations in India

Aditee Potdar, Seema Unnikrishnan, and Anju Singh
Abstract—This paper reports the energy management systems in India, describing the command-and-control, market-based, and voluntary approaches. Energy-related command-and-control regulations focus majorly on the electricity sector. Renewable Energy Certificate is a market-based instrument for promoting renewable sources of energy and facilitating Renewable Purchase Obligation. An analysis of the accredited and registered projects under the scheme has been presented. The Perform-Achieve-Trade scheme targets eight sectors to promote energy-efficient technology and issues an energy saving certificate for every metric ton of oil equivalent of energy saved, which can be traded on special trading platforms. About 45% of the designated consumers have met their targets for 2014 - 15 while another 12.5% are on the verge of it. The voluntary regulations offer flexibility and are engaged with a broader community. They include diverse sectors such as households, Small and Medium Enterprises, and agriculture. The different energy regulation mechanisms have significantly contributed to energy-efficient technology, renewable energy, and a restructured electricity sector. The regulations employing different approaches have helped minimize the emissions of the energy sector, thereby contributing towards climate change mitigation.

Index Terms—Command-and-control, market-based mechanism, renewable energy certificate mechanism, perform-achieve-trade scheme, voluntary approach.

The authors are with the National Institute of Industrial Engineering (NITIE), Mumbai, Maharashtra 400087, India (e-mail:,,


Cite: Aditee Potdar, Seema Unnikrishnan, and Anju Singh, "Study of Energy Regulations in India," International Journal of Environmental Science and Development vol. 7, no. 11, pp. 835-842, 2016.

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