Abstract—The application of orthophosphate and silica
chemical treatments to contaminated land in cold regions
remains understudied. The potential of mixed
silica-orthophosphate treatments for the management of metal
contaminated sites has not been examined. Investigation and
characterization of the mineral products which form during
treatment, to ensure their suitability and stability for
remediation and contaminant migration prevention is essential.
This should be achieved prior to in-situ implementation. This
paper observes the mineral products formed by reaction
between orthophosphate, silica and orthophosphate-silica mix
treatment(s) and lead sulfate, copper oxide and zinc oxide
systems over 114 days using X-ray diffractometry. Detectable
changes to the mineral composition of analyzed specimens
occurred in all systems. Immobilization was most effective for
lead and least effective for zinc. This study demonstrates the
potential of chemical treatments for the management of metal
contaminated sites in cold regions. However, the results of this
study demonstrate that treatments must be designed with
consideration of factors such as environmental risk, the various
stabilities of mineral products formed, temperature and the
solubility of contaminant phases requiring treatment.
Index Terms—Cold regions, heavy metals, immobilization, remediation, stabilization.
D. Camenzuli is with the Department of Environmental Science, Macquarie University, Sydney, NSW, 2109, Australia (e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org).
Cite: Danielle Camenzuli, "Minerals Formed by Treatment of Heavy Metals with Orthophosphate, Silica or an Orthophosphate-Silica Mix Treatment under Cold Conditions," International Journal of Environmental Science and Development vol. 6, no. 12, pp. 913-919, 2015.