General Information
    • ISSN: 2010-0264 (Print)
    • Abbreviated Title: Int. J. Environ. Sci. Dev.
    • Frequency: Monthly
    • DOI: 10.18178/IJESD
    • Editor-in-Chief: Prof. Richard Haynes
    • Executive Editor: Ms. Nancy Y. Liu
    • Abstracting/ Indexing: Scopus (Since 2019), Chemical Abstracts Services (CAS), EBSCO, CABI, Ulrich Periodicals Directory, Electronic Journals Library, Crossref, ProQuest.
    • E-mail:
    • Twitter: @IJESD1
The University of Queensland, Australia
It is my honor to be the editor-in-chief of IJESD. The journal publishes good papers in the field of environmental science and development.
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IJESD 2012 Vol.3(4): 350-353 ISSN: 2010-0264
DOI: 10.7763/IJESD.2012.V3.245

Heat Treatment on Fly and Bottom Ash Based Geopolymers: Effect on the Immobilization of Lead and Cadmium

K. Krausova, T. W. Cheng, L. Gautron, Y. S. Dai, and S. Borenstajn

Abstract—This study focuses on geopolymers produced from Municipal Solid Waste Incineration ashes, in order to transform ultimate and hazardous waste containing heavy metals into a chemically stable and economically competitive construction product. The main objective of the study is to evaluate the efficiency of the toxic elements immobilization after heat treatment. Samples were prepared with different proportions of fly ash, bottom ash and waste glass by activation with an alkaline solution. Waste glass was used to improve certain physical properties and decrease possible leaching. Incinerator waste-based geopolymers were observed and analyzed by X-Ray Diffraction and by Scanning Electron Microscopy coupled with Energy Dispersive X-ray microanalysis. The sustainability of these waste-bearing geopolymer materials has been constrained through leaching experiments (TCLP), density, porosity and water absorption measurements. The important result is that heat treatment appears to decrease both porosity and water absorption of geopolymers, thus resulting in a strengthening of waste-bearing matrices. The effect of heat treatment on leaching behavior was more difficult to identify, as discussed below. Furthermore, we observe that replacing a portion of FA and BA by waste glass significantly increases both physical and chemical resistance of geopolymers, probably due to pore filling by melted waste glass.

Index Terms—Cadmium, geopolymers, heat treatment, lead, municipal solid waste.

K. Krausova and L. Gautron are with the Laboratory of Earth Materials and Environment, University Paris East – Marne la Vallée, 93160, France (e-mail:
T. W. Cheng and Y. S. Dai are with the Institute of Mineral Resources Engineering, National Taipei University of Technology, Taiwan.
S. Borenstajn is with the Laboratory of Interfaces and Electrochemical Systems, University Pierre and Marie Curie, France.


Cite: K. Krausova, T. W. Cheng, L. Gautron, Y. S. Dai, and S. Borenstajn, "Heat Treatment on Fly and Bottom Ash Based Geopolymers: Effect on the Immobilization of Lead and Cadmium," International Journal of Environmental Science and Development vol. 3, no. 4, pp. 350-353, 2012.

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