General Information
    • ISSN: 2010-0264
    • Frequency: Bimonthly (2010-2014); Monthly (Since 2015)
    • DOI: 10.18178/IJESD
    • Editor-in-Chief: Prof. Richard Haynes
    • Executive Editor: Ms. Nancy Y. Liu
    • Abstracting/ Indexing: Chemical Abstracts Services (CAS), CABI, Ulrich Periodicals Directory, Electronic Journals Library, Crossref, ProQuest.
    • E-mail:
  • Jun 22, 2018 News! [CFP] 2018 the annual meeting of IJESD Editorial Board, ACESD 2018, will be held in Singapore during November 2-4, 2018.    [Click]
  • Oct 08, 2018 News! Vol. 9, No. 11 has been indexed by Crossref.
The University of Queensland, Australia
It is my honor to be the editor-in-chief of IJESD. The journal publishes good papers in the field of environmental science and development.
IJESD 2011 Vol.2(6): 479-482 ISSN: 2010-0264
DOI: 10.7763/IJESD.2011.V2.173

Removal of Hardness from Groundwater by Synthetic Resin from Waste Plastics

Prapat Pentamwa, Wipasinun Thipthara, and Suparat Nuangon

Abstract—The capacity of waste polystyrene plastics for hardness groundwater removal was investigated in this study. The wastes of polystyrene were prepared from foam of food packaging and air bubble plastic. They were synthesized into active adsorbent cationic resin. The water hardness was pumped through the designed column with combination of made resin and sand-gravel filters for groundwater treatment. The results revealed that the hardness removal efficiency of added made resins in the system was higher than no added resin (43% vs 12%) and they were below the acceptable Thailand standard for groundwater drinking water of 300 mg CaCO3/L. However, there were no difference in term of hardness efficiency capability for different types of polystyrene plastics and the thickness of resin used in the study.

Index Terms—Hardness water, groundwater, resin, waste plastics, Nakornratchasima.

Prapat Pentamwa, Wipasinun Thipthara and Suparat Nuangon are with the School of Environmental Health, Institute of Medicine, Suranaree University of Technology, Nakornratchasima, 30000. Thailand (e-mail:;;


Cite: Prapat Pentamwa, Wipasinun Thipthara, and Suparat Nuangon, "Removal of Hardness from Groundwater by Synthetic Resin from Waste Plastics," International Journal of Environmental Science and Development vol. 2, no. 6, pp. 479-482, 2011.

Copyright © 2008-2018. International Journal of Environmental Science and Development. All rights reserved.