Abstract—The process of copper recovery from waste
printed circuit board has generated large amounts of
non-metallic fraction (NMF) residue. In this research, the
residue was recycled as a substitute for fine aggregates at 0%,
5%, 10%, 15%, and 20% to produce interlocking concrete
blocks. Properties of the interlocking concrete blocks produced
in this study, such as density, water absorption, compressive
strength, were firstly examined and the selected mixes were
further evaluated for the heavy metal leachability. The results
indicated that the NMF residue affected physical, mechanical
and chemical properties of NMF interlocking concrete block
samples. When increasing NMF contents, the density and
compressive strength decreased, while the water absorption
increased. In the leachability results, the leaching of Cu
decreased as cement content increased, and its concentration
level was well below the Soluble Threshold Limit Concentration
limit (STLC). Thus, the high content of Cu and all other metals
embedded in the NMF material were immobilized in the
interlocking concrete block specimens.
Index Terms—Interlocking concrete block, non-metallic fraction residue, recycling, waste printed circuit board.
Sawitri Pianchaiyaphum and Suphaphat Kwonpongsagoon are with the Department of Sanitary Engineering, Faculty of Public Health, Mahidol University, Bangkok, 10400, Thailand. They are also with Center of Excellence on Environmental Health and Toxicology (EHT), Bangkok, 10400,Thailand (e-mail:firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com).
Premrudee Kanchanapiya is with National Metal and Materials Technology Center, Pathum Thani, 12120, Thailand (e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org).
Chakrapan Tuakta is with the Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Kasetsart University, Bangkok, 10900, Thailand (e-mail: email@example.com).
Cite: Sawitri Pianchaiyaphum, Suphaphat Kwonpongsagoon, Premrudee Kanchanapiya, and Chakrapan Tuakta, "Recycling of Non-metallic Residue from Waste Printed Circuit Boards to Produce Interlocking Concrete Blocks," International Journal of Environmental Science and Development vol. 12, no. 6, pp. 169-174, 2021.Copyright © 2021 by the authors. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).