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IJESD 2020 Vol.11(4): 159-164 ISSN: 2010-0264
doi: 10.18178/ijesd.2020.11.4.1244

Lead Immobilization in Artificial Contaminated Soil Using Sulfur-Impregnated Carbonaceous Rice Straw

T. Wajima

Abstract—A novel carbonaceous immobilizing agent for heavy metal contaminated soil was prepared from rice straw using sulfur immersion and pyrolysis, and the lead immobilization in artificial contaminated soils using sulfur-impregnated carbonaceous material was estimated. The rice straws were cut to 1 cm pieces, and then immersed in 0.1 - 1 M K2S solution for 0 - 24 h to prepare sulfur-immersed materials. The immersed-materials were heated at 400 oC for 1 h in nitrogen gas to produce the sulfur-impregnated carbonaceous material by pyrolysis. The abilities of the product to immobilize lead from aqueous solution were examined to obtain the product with high lead immobilization ability. With increasing K2S concentration, the immobilization ability of the product for lead gradually increases and then above 0.5 M K2S those are almost constant, while 15 min is sufficient for the immersed time to obtain the product with high lead immobilization ability. The product prepared from material immersed in more than 0.5 M K2S solution for less than 15 min has a maximum immobilization ability for lead ion. The lead immobilization using the sulfur-impregnated product is sustainable due to the formation of leadhillite [Pb4SO4(CO3)2(OH)2] and anglesite [PbSO4]. The product can immobilize lead ion in various artificial lead contaminated soils. By mixing artificial lead contaminated soil with the sulfur-impregnated product, the eluted solution became neutral, and the eluted concentrations of lead ion dropped below the Japanese elution standard for soil.

Index Terms—Soil contamination, lead immobilization, sulfur-impregnation, rice straw, pyrolysis.

T. Wajima is with the Development of Urban Environment Systems, Chiba University, Japan (e-mail: wajima@tu.chiba-u.ac.jp).

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Cite: T. Wajima, "Lead Immobilization in Artificial Contaminated Soil Using Sulfur-Impregnated Carbonaceous Rice Straw," International Journal of Environmental Science and Development vol. 11, no. 4, pp. 159-164, 2020.

Copyright © 2020 by the authors. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

General Information

  • ISSN: 2010-0264 (Print)
  • Abbreviated Title: Int. J. Environ. Sci. Dev.
  • Frequency: Monthly
  • DOI: 10.18178/IJESD
  • Editor-in-Chief: Prof. Richard Haynes
  • Executive Editor: Ms. Nancy Y. Liu
  • Indexing: Scopus (since 2019), DOAJCrossref, ProQuest, EBSCO, etc. 
  • E-mail: ijesd@ejournal.net