General Information
    • ISSN: 2010-0264 (Print)
    • Abbreviated Title: Int. J. Environ. Sci. Dev.
    • Frequency: Monthly
    • DOI: 10.18178/IJESD
    • Editor-in-Chief: Prof. Richard Haynes
    • Executive Editor: Ms. Nancy Y. Liu
    • Abstracting/ Indexing: Scopus (Since 2019), Chemical Abstracts Services (CAS), EBSCO, CABI, Ulrich Periodicals Directory, Electronic Journals Library, Crossref, ProQuest.
    • E-mail: ijesd@ejournal.net
    • Twitter: @IJESD1
Editor-in-Chief
The University of Queensland, Australia
It is my honor to be the editor-in-chief of IJESD. The journal publishes good papers in the field of environmental science and development.
  • Jun 22, 2018 News! [CFP] 2019 the annual meeting of IJESD Editorial Board, ACESD 2019, will be held in Yokohama National University, Japan during November 9-11, 2019.     [Click]
  • May 10, 2019 News! Vol.10, No.6 has been published with online version!   [Click]
IJESD 2019 Vol.10(6): 183-187 ISSN: 2010-0264
doi: 10.18178/ijesd.2019.10.6.1169
Article

Removal of Cu, Cd, Pb and Zn from Contaminated Soil by Using Plant-Based Surfactants, Sapindus mukorossi L (Soapnut) and Acacia Concinna (Shikakai)

Elijah Cbibuzo Ugwu, Bhaskar Sen Gupta, Adeloye Adebayo, and Nadia Martínez-Villegas
Abstract—The performance of two plant-based surfactants in the removal of heavy metals (Cu, Cd, Pb and Zn) from soil was studied ex-situ. Experimental parameters were: six soil-solution ratios (1:10, 1:20, 1:30, 1:40, 1:50 and 1:60), six surfactant concentrations (0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6% by mass), seven washing times (2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 24, and 48 hr) and four pH values of the washing solution (3, 4, 5 and 6). In general, removal efficiency increased with an increase in surfactant concentration, time and soil-solution ratio but decreased with increase in the pH of washing solution. The removal of heavy metals was in the following range: Cu, Cd, Zn and Pb for both surfactants reaching up to 90%, 80%, 53% and 52% respectively. The overall performance of the batch washing process indicates that both surfactants were very effective in soil washing. The effectiveness of these surfactants is due to their ability to form micelles and subsequent removal of heavy metals from the soil surface by reducing the interfacial tension. Both surfactants have the advantages of being environment-friendly and cost effective.

Index Terms—Soil washing, heavy metals, soapnut, shikakai.

Elijah Cbibuzo Ugwu is with School of Energy, Geoscience, Infrastructure and Society, Heriot-Watt University, Water Academy, EGIS 2.02A William Arrol Building, EH144AS Scotland, United Kingdom (e-mail: ecu2@hw.ac.uk).
Bhaskar Sen Gupta was with School of Energy, Geoscience, Infrastructure & Society, Heriot-Watt University, Water Academy, EGIS 2.02A William Arrol Building, EH144AS Scotland, United Kingdom (e-mail: b.sengupta@hw.ac.uk).
Adeloye Adebayo is with School of Energy, Geoscience, Infrastructure & Society, Heriot-Watt University, Water Academy, EGIS 2.02A William Arrol Building, EH144AS Scotland, United Kingdom (e-mail: A.J.Adeloye@hw.ac.uk).
Nadia Martínez-Villegas is with IPICyT, Instituto Potosino de Investigacion Cientifica y Tecnologica, Division de Geociencias Aplicadas, Camino a la Presa San Jose No. 2055, Col. Lomas 4a Sec., 78216 San Luis Potosi, SLP, Mexico (e-mail: nadia.martinez@ipicyt.edu.mx).

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Cite: Elijah Cbibuzo Ugwu, Bhaskar Sen Gupta, Adeloye Adebayo, and Nadia Martínez-Villegas, "Removal of Cu, Cd, Pb and Zn from Contaminated Soil by Using Plant-Based Surfactants, Sapindus mukorossi L (Soapnut) and Acacia Concinna (Shikakai)," International Journal of Environmental Science and Development vol. 10, no. 6, pp. 183-187, 2019.

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