General Information
    • ISSN: 2010-0264 (Print)
    • Abbreviated Title: Int. J. Environ. Sci. Dev.
    • Frequency: Monthly
    • DOI: 10.18178/IJESD
    • Editor-in-Chief: Prof. Richard Haynes
    • Executive Editor: Ms. Nancy Y. Liu
    • Abstracting/ Indexing: Scopus (Since 2019), Chemical Abstracts Services (CAS), EBSCO, CABI, Ulrich Periodicals Directory, Electronic Journals Library, Crossref, ProQuest.
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The University of Queensland, Australia
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IJESD 2018 Vol.9(12): 368-374 ISSN: 2010-0264
doi: 10.18178/ijesd.2018.9.12.1131

Evaluation of Japan’s Policy for CO2 Reduction at the First Commitment Period of the Kyoto Protocol

Naoya Tsukamoto and Ryo Fujikura
Abstract—Japan achieved its 6% reduction target under the first commitment period stipulated by the Kyoto Protocol by using flexibility mechanisms and land use, land use change and forestry. Carbon dioxide emission from the energy sector increased by 6.7% compared to 1990. We analysed the change of Japan’s carbon dioxide emission from the energy sector during the period with official reference year 1990 and with the five years(i.e. 2003-2007) just before the first commitment period (i.e. 2008-2012) comparing with Germany, UK, France, and Spain. Japan reduced its greenhouse gases emissions by 23.6% through contribution from sectors other than energy, while the emission from the energy sector increased by 9.3%. It contrasts with the fact that the other four countries achieved reduction in the energy sector. Though Japan achieved a certain level of GHG reductions on the demand-side through various policy measures, including Top-Runner method and technology R&D, it failed to low-carbonize the energy sector which increased its carbon dioxide emission. This structure would not have changed even if the accident of Fukushima nuclear power station in 2011 had not occurred. Without a fundamental energy policy change, Japan might not achieve a substantial emission reduction of carbon dioxide from its energy sector under the coming era of Paris Agreement.

Index Terms—Carbon dioxide from energy sector, CO2, Japan, Kyoto protocol.

N. Tsukamoto is with Hosei Graduate School of Public Policy and Social Governance, Japan (e-mail:
R. Fujikura is with the Faculty of Sustainability Studies, Hosei University, Tokyo, Japan (e-mail:


Cite: Naoya Tsukamoto and Ryo Fujikura, "Evaluation of Japan’s Policy for CO2 Reduction at the First Commitment Period of the Kyoto Protocol," International Journal of Environmental Science and Development vol. 9, no. 12, pp. 368-374, 2018.

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