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    • ISSN: 2010-0264
    • Frequency: Bimonthly (2010-2014); Monthly (Since 2015)
    • DOI: 10.18178/IJESD
    • Editor-in-Chief: Prof. Richard Haynes
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Editor-in-chief
The University of Queensland, Australia
It is my honor to be the editor-in-chief of IJESD. The journal publishes good papers in the field of environmental science and development.
IJESD 2015 Vol.6(9): 660-663 ISSN: 2010-0264
DOI: 10.7763/IJESD.2015.V6.676

Direct Measurement of Anaerobic Biodegradability of Nonylphenol Ethoxylates (NPEOs)

Mohd Hafiz Puteh, David C. Stuckey, and Mohd Hafiz Dzarfan Othman
Abstract—The biodegradation of nonylphenol ethoxylates (NPEOs) surfactant often produces more refractory, toxic and estrogenic intermediates. In this study, simple analytical method for NPEOs determination based on High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) was developed and complete biodegradation of NPEOs was evaluated by “serum bottle method” that uses direct measure of biogas production in anaerobic condition. The reversed phase C18 column was successfully used for detection of long chain NPEOave9 (having an average of 9 EO units) and short chain NPEOave1.5 (having an average of 1.5 EO units) and nonylphenol (NP) at short retention time. However, the coelution of oligomers in reversed phase chromatography is unavoidable, thus the distinction between NPEO oligomers is not possible. In biodegradation study study, the long chain NPEOave9 was partially mineralized at approximately 37% of the theoretical CH4 production in anaerobic condition. Nevertheless, the refractory intermediates of NPEOave1.5 and nonylphenol adversely affects the glucoseutilizing methanogens under anaerobic condition, thereby hampering CH4 formation. It can be concluded that the anaerobic biodegradation of nonylphenolic compounds proceeded at a very slow rate due to their complex physicochemical properties.

Index Terms—Nonylphenol ethoxylates, endocrine disrupting compounds, anaerobic, biochemical methane potential.

Mohd Hafiz Puteh is with the Department of Environmental Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Skudai, Johor, Malaysia (e-mail: mhafizputeh@utm.my).
David C. Stuckey is with the Department of Chemical Engineering and Chemical Technology, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ, United Kingdom (e-mail: d.stuckey@ac.ic.uk).
Mohd Hafiz Dzarfan Othman is with the Advanced Membrane Technology Research Centre (AMTEC), Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Skudai, Johor, Malaysia (e-mail: hafiz@petroleum.utm.my).

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Cite:Mohd Hafiz Puteh, David C. Stuckey, and Mohd Hafiz Dzarfan Othman, "Direct Measurement of Anaerobic Biodegradability of Nonylphenol Ethoxylates (NPEOs)," International Journal of Environmental Science and Development vol. 6, no. 9, pp. 660-663, 2015.

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