General Information
    • ISSN: 2010-0264
    • Frequency: Bimonthly (2010-2014); Monthly (Since 2015)
    • DOI: 10.18178/IJESD
    • Editor-in-Chief: Prof. Richard Haynes
    • Executive Editor: Ms. Nancy Y. Liu
    • Abstracting/ Indexing: Chemical Abstracts Services (CAS), CABI, Ulrich Periodicals Directory, Electronic Journals Library, Crossref, ProQuest.
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The University of Queensland, Australia
It is my honor to be the editor-in-chief of IJESD. The journal publishes good papers in the field of environmental science and development.
IJESD 2013 Vol.4(4): 375-378 ISSN: 2010-0264
DOI: 10.7763/IJESD.2013.V4.374

PFI System for Retrofitting Small 4-Stroke Gasoline Engines

Mohd Faisal Hushim, Ahmad Jais Alimin, Hazlina Selamat, and Mohd Taufiq Muslim
Abstract—Fuel injection system is a promising technology that enhances positively the fuel economy, engine performances and emission reduction, as compared to the conventional carburetor system. Currently, motorcycles using carburetor system are widely used as a mean of transportation especially in urban areas. This conventional fuelling system produces more harmful emissions and consumes more fuel compared to the fuel injection system. It is therefore desirable to have a fuel injection system that can easily be retrofitted to the current on-road motorcycles. This paper presents a review and comparative study using 1-D simulation software - GT-Power, on electronic fuel injection (EFI) system between port-fuel injection (PFI) and direct injection (GDI) system for retrofitment purpose of small 125cc 4-stroke gasoline engine. From this study, PFI system has been selected based on its high brake power, brake torque, and brake mean effective pressure with low brake specific fuel consumption.

Index Terms—Fuel injection system, retrofitment, small gasoline engine.

M. F. Hushim and A. J. Alimin are with the Automotive Research Group (ARG-UTHM), Department of Plant & Automotive Engineering, Faculty of Mechanical & Manufacturing Engineering, Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia (UTHM) (e-mail:,
H. Selamat and M. T. Muslim are with the Centre of Intelligence & Robotics, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM) (e-mail:,


Cite:Mohd Faisal Hushim, Ahmad Jais Alimin, Hazlina Selamat, and Mohd Taufiq Muslim, "PFI System for Retrofitting Small 4-Stroke Gasoline Engines," International Journal of Environmental Science and Development vol. 4, no. 4, pp. 375-378, 2013.

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