—The importance of fresh water for human health has no doubt, even for other uses its quality must be contain standard composition. In developing countries groundwater contamination come from various sources which contains very complicated toxics elements such as landfills, waste water drains, river, industrial and agriculture sectors. Due to lack of management resources, policies and enforcement of environmental laws properly are making groundwater system unsuitable for general public. Lahore, second largest city of Pakistan has been facing similar issues. Current study is to investigate present groundwater contamination sources and describes TDS concentration in various parts of study area. Landfill leachate, drain water, River water and groundwater chemical analysis data is used to indentify TDS potential level in groundwater system. 36% groundwater samples have high concentration level then Pakistan Quality Control Authority (PSQCA), while 1.5% is exceeded from WHO standards for drinking water. TDS higher level is alarming for consumers and with time its potential will be higher. According to 2010 groundwater chemical analysis data most areas have suitable zones for drinking purpose; however, there is high risk of continuous contamination. Finally, this study identifies highly contaminated groundwater and makes convenient to find out actual pollutants. Therefore, practical strategies are needed to protect aquifer.
—Groundwater contamination, landfill, lahore, TDS.
The authors are with School of Environmental Studies, China University of Geosciences, 388 Lumo Road, Wuhan, Hubei, China. (Email:firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com).
Cite:M. M. Akhtar and Zhonghua Tang, "Identification of Contamination Sources and TDS Concentration in Groundwater of Second Biggest City of Pakistan," International Journal of Environmental Science and Development vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 341-345, 2013.