General Information
    • ISSN: 2010-0264
    • Frequency: Bimonthly (2010-2014); Monthly (Since 2015)
    • DOI: 10.18178/IJESD
    • Editor-in-Chief: Prof. Richard Haynes
    • Executive Editor: Ms. Nancy Y. Liu
    • Abstracting/ Indexing: Chemical Abstracts Services (CAS), CABI, Ulrich Periodicals Directory, Electronic Journals Library, Crossref, ProQuest.
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The University of Queensland, Australia
It is my honor to be the editor-in-chief of IJESD. The journal publishes good papers in the field of environmental science and development.
IJESD 2013 Vol. 4(2): 139-142 ISSN: 2010-0264
DOI: 10.7763/IJESD.2013.V4.322

Risk Assessment of Poly Cyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in the Holy City of Makkah, Saudi Arabia

Turki M. Habeebullah
Abstract—There is a lack of information on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) as environmental pollutants in Saudi Arabia. The current study focuses on the risk assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs),in the Holy city of Makkah, Saudi Arabia, during Hajj season 1431H. Atmospheric particulate matter was collected using High Volume samplers. Samples of 24h were collected at three sampling sites, Al-Shebakah, Al-Aziziah and Mina. PAH compounds were quantified by using GC. The total PAH concentrations (ng/m3) ranged from 103.5 - 195.2 with mean values of 164.67, 137.81 and 132.40 for TSP, PM10, PM2.5, respectively. The higher percentages of the total carcinogenic compounds were recorded at Al-Shebakah, with a maximum value of 63.5 % in PM10. The carcinogenic PAHs, dibenzo[a]pyrene was found at low concentrations.

Index Terms—Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, risk assessment, makkah.

Turki M. Habeebullah is with The Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques Institute for Hajj and Umrah Research, Umm Al-Qura University (e-mail:


Cite:Turki M. Habeebullah, "Risk Assessment of Poly Cyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in the Holy City of Makkah, Saudi Arabia," International Journal of Environmental Science and Development vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 139-142, 2013.

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