General Information
    • ISSN: 2010-0264 (Print)
    • Abbreviated Title: Int. J. Environ. Sci. Dev.
    • Frequency: Monthly
    • DOI: 10.18178/IJESD
    • Editor-in-Chief: Prof. Richard Haynes
    • Executive Editor: Ms. Nancy Y. Liu
    • Abstracting/ Indexing: Scopus (Since 2019), Chemical Abstracts Services (CAS), EBSCO, CABI, Ulrich Periodicals Directory, Electronic Journals Library, Crossref, ProQuest.
    • E-mail:
    • Twitter: @IJESD1
The University of Queensland, Australia
It is my honor to be the editor-in-chief of IJESD. The journal publishes good papers in the field of environmental science and development.
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IJESD 2012 Vol.3(6): 553-561 ISSN: 2010-0264
DOI: 10.7763/IJESD.2012.V3.285

Preliminary Design of Eco-City by Using Industrial Symbiosis and Waste Co-Processing Based on MFA, LCA, and MFCA of Cement Industry in Indonesia

Nova Ulhasanah and Naohiro Goto

Abstract—Cement Company in a city in Indonesia is taken as a case study in this study which its production process system was evaluated by material flow analysis, life cycle assessment, and material flow cost accounting. The cement company is the biggest company in the city which makes the company has substantial influence of the city’s economy, society and environment. This study was aimed to propose the new system design of cement production as a preliminary design of eco-city by industrial symbiosis that involves many elements inside and outside the city in order to establish the cement production sustainability in Indonesia. The scope of this study is all activities inside the company, from raw material extraction until the product packaging process. Several problems are detected faced by the cement company such as limitation of limestone reserve, CO2 emission, high energy consumption, cement kiln dust, dust emission, several diseases, and others related to cost, social, and environmental aspects. If the company keeps this system on, it will harm the environment, human health, even affects the company’s income. Therefore, the new system proposal which is selected from several scenarios is needed to embody the sustainable development.

Index Terms—Material flow analysis, life cycle assessment, material flow cost accounting, cement kiln dust.

The authors are with Toyohashi University of Technology, Japan (e-mail:


Cite: Nova Ulhasanah and Naohiro Goto, "Preliminary Design of Eco-City by Using Industrial Symbiosis and Waste Co-Processing Based on MFA, LCA, and MFCA of Cement Industry in Indonesia," International Journal of Environmental Science and Development vol. 3, no. 6, pp. 553-561, 2012.

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